The archeological excavations in the city of Chania revealed that the modern city is built over the ruins of Kydonia, an ancient city of great importance. The ancient city of Kydonia was constructed during the prehistoric times. According to Cretan mythology, the city was founded by Kydonas, the son of Hermes or of Apollo (according to a different theory) and of the nymph Akakalida, daughter of king Minos. Homer refers to the city of Kydonia as one of the greatest cities of Crete and Kydonians are considered a pre-Hellenic race. Many ancient writers consider Kydonia the "mother of other Cretan cities".
There are many theories around the etymology of the city's name. The name "Chania" might originate from the name "Hthonia", one of the ancient names of Crete. According to other theories, the name "Chania" derives from the Arabic word "Hani" or from the name of a district of ancient Kydonia, "alchania komi".
- Prehistoric and Hellenistic period (3.000 - 69 B.C)
- Roman period (69 B.C - 330 A.D)
- 1st Byzantine Period (330-824 A.D)
- Arabic Period (824 -961 A.D)
- 2nd Byzantine Period (961 - 1204 A.D)
- Venetian Period (1204-1669)
- Early Turkish Period (1645 - 1831)
- Egyptian Period (1831 - 1841)
- Late Turkish Period (1841 - 1898)
- Cretan State (1898 - 1913)
- Contemporary Years